Settlement Damage to Masonry Structures: Models

This is an example of the 3D model of tunnelling used to predict settlement damage. A straight tunnel of diameter 5m, with its axis at a depth of 10m, is driven in four stages through soil having a material constitutive behaviour close to overconsolidated clay. The example given here was developed in 1996 to demonstrate the model, rather than to provide damage data. Further details are given in the theses of C.E. Augarde and G. Liu.


The mesh used for the building (height 8m) is shown below (not to the same scale). The mesh is comprised of 2D plane stress membrane elements.