K. Tei

Doctor of Philosophy, Magdalen College, University of Oxford, Trinity Term 1993

A Study of Soil Nailing in Sand

Summary

This dissertation is concerned with a study of soil nailing, in particular the interaction mechanism between the soil and a nail and the failure mechanism and suitable design procedure for nailed slopes in sand.

The interaction mechanism of a nail was studied by carrying out a number of pull-out tests, direct shear tests of nailed sand and interface tests using two uniform sands. major parameters of the tests were flexibility, surface roughness and diameter of a nail. From the tests, it was found that: (1) flexibility of nail significantly influences the interaction mechanism. Both the interaction parameter and apparent friction coefficient differ between a flexible and a stiff nail. Theoretical consideration indicates that the mobilization of nail forces is dominated by the relative stiffness between soil and nail. (2) a smooth-surface nail produces smaller bond friction than the critical state friction angle and mineral-to-mineral angle of the soil. This is due to the very thin rupture surface developed around the nail. On the other hand, a rough-surface nail was observed to produce two to four times larger bond friction than the direct shear friction angle of sand, due to the thick rupture surface developed and the dilatancy of the soil. (3) increasing the diameter of a nail produces a smaller apparent friction coefficient . Restrained dilatancy was found to play an important role. (4) the pull-out test, direct shear test of nailed sand and interface test produce different values of apparent friction coefficient , due to the different amount of restrained dilatancy effect around the nail (or reinforcement).

The overall behaviour of nailed slopes was studied by carrying out a comprehensive series of centrifuge tests. Excavation of soil was simulated by draining water from two rubber bags in front of the facing wall. The centrifuge tests have provided much useful information on the mechanics of soil nailing. From the tests, it was found that: (1) draining of the water significantly influences both the earth pressure on the facing wall and the displacements of the nailed slope. Horizontal displacements of the facing wall were decreased by increasing the length and/or friction (bond) of the nail. (2) earth pressures on the facing wall do not exhibit a simple hydrostatic distribution. The deviations of the earth pressure are not negligible especially near the top and bottom of the facing wall. (3) roughness and bending stiffness of the facing wall considerably influence the stability and displacement of the nailed slope, respectively. (4) the observed failure surfaces were well described by a logarithmic spiral passing through the toe of the facing wall. (5) fairly good predictions for the failure acceleration were made using stability analysis of the nailed slopes was estimated by comparing the total available force and the total required force based on the observed failure surfaces.

Thesis (7.49MB, pdf)

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