Departmental News

Please subscribe to our RSS newsfeed: RSS image


The Department produces a range of literature – to learn more about our activities you can read:

Departmental Newsletters


Issue 7 Front cover

Previous Issues

Engineering Science News: 2013-14 Cover
Issue 6
News: 2016-17
Engineering Science News: 2013-14 Cover
Issue 5
News: 2015-16
Engineering Science News: 2013-14 Cover
Issue 4
News: 2014-15
Engineering Science News: 2013-14 Cover
Issue 3
News: 2013-14
Engineering Science News: 2012-13 Cover
Issue 2
News: 2012-13
Engineering Science News: 2011-12 Cover
Issue 1
News: 2011-12

News articles

Read about the work the Department is undertaking, about its achievements and the valuable contributions students and staff are making to society …

Engineering student awarded prestigious Google PhD Fellowship

Department of Engineering Science DPhil candidate Arsha Nagrani has been announced as one of the 39 global recipients of Google’s PhD Fellowships this year.
Engineering student awarded prestigious Google PhD Fellowship

Arsha Nagrani


Google created the PhD Fellowship program in 2009 to recognize and support outstanding graduate students doing exceptional research in Computer Science and related disciplines. Now in its ninth year, the fellowship program has supported hundreds of future faculty, industry researchers, innovators and entrepreneurs. Arsha received the Fellowship in the ‘Machine Perception, Speech Technology and Computer Vision’ category. 

"These awards have been presented to exemplary PhD students in computer science and related research areas”, Google commented. “We have given these students unique fellowships to acknowledge their contributions to their areas of specialty and provide funding for their education and research. We look forward to working closely with them as they continue to become leaders in their respective fields".

Arsha is supervised by Professors Andrew Zisserman and Andrea Vedaldi in the Department’s Visual Geometry Group and has research interests in computer vision and machine learning. For example, a paper by Arsha Nagrani with Samuel Albanie and Professor Zisserman that will appear in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition later this year, introduced the task of matching a voice to a face so that a person could be identified from an audio clip or a photo, which is a new form of cross-modal biometric matching.

This is the second time a student from the Department has received this honour – in 2016 Yves-Laurent Kom Samo, a DPhil student in the Machine Learning Research Group, was awarded the Google Fellowship in Machine Learning.

The Royal Academy of Engineering funds global research visionaries to advance emerging technologies

The Royal Academy of Engineering has today announced long-term support to ten engineering global-visionaries to develop areas of emerging technology. One of the ten Chairs is Professor Tim Denison, who will take up the post of Professor of Neurotechnology at the University of Oxford in August 2018.

The Royal Academy of Engineering Chairs in Emerging Technologies will focus on developing technologies that have the potential to bring significant economic and societal benefits to the UK, ensuring that the UK is a driving force for global technological innovation.

Professor Tim Denison will take up the post of Professor of Neurotechnology at the University of Oxford from 1st August 2018, based in the Department of Engineering Science and the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, and will lead the effort in developing novel, closed-loop, minimally invasive brain therapies. Professor Denison’s Emerging Technologies project is entitled ‘Brain engineering: towards closed-loop, non-invasive bioelectronic therapies for neurological disorders’.

Supported by the UK government’s National Productivity Investment Fund, the Academy is committing £1.3 million to each of the ten-year programmes. The support provided to the Chairs in Emerging Technologies will enable these engineers to focus on advancing the novel technologies from basic research through to real deployment and commercialisation.

The ten Chairs were selected by a panel of Fellows of the Academy, led by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and open data pioneer, Sir Nigel Shadbolt FREng FRS. As part of their appointment, the Chairs will develop Centres of Excellence in their areas of emerging technology, building and maintaining contacts with industry and other partners to accelerate commercialisation.

Professor Dame Ann Dowling OM DBE FREng FRS, President of the Royal Academy of Engineering, said: “Emerging technologies offer enormous opportunities for the UK, both economically and socially, but often their potential is not widely recognised until it is championed by a visionary individual. The ten researchers who have been appointed as Chairs in Emerging Technologies are global leaders in their fields, seeking to transform their pioneering ideas into fully commercialised technologies with important and widespread applications".

Brain engineering

Phase-specific stimulation
Phase-specific stimulation. The neurostimulator is controlled by patient’s tremor, sensed using the accelerometer attached to the tremulous hand. The green segments indicate when a burst of stimulation is applied to patient’s ventrolateral thalamus. The exact timing of stimulation onset is locked to a particular tremor phase, and the interburst frequency is equivalent to the patient’s tremor frequency.

When treating neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, doctors have generally relied on drug discoveries, but this is often a costly and lengthy process. With the significant personal and societal costs incurred by such disorders there’s an imperative to invest in alternative approaches to treatment.

Bioelectronics work directly with the body’s own nervous system to monitor physiological signals and, as needed, tweak the electrical activity within nerves to alleviate symptoms of diseases. Existing bioelectronic systems have several drawbacks, and despite clinical success in treating symptoms of diseases like Parkinson’s, are only used in a minority of cases. Currently a skilled surgeon is required to implant the system in a patient, and the system’s programming is inflexible compared to the rich dynamics of the nervous system.

The microelectronic basis and digital programmability of bioelectronic systems means that there is huge potential for flexibility in both research and future medical device design. Emerging technology offers the possibility of building restorative neural systems which are adaptable and programmable for various diseases, as well as specifically for individuals. The algorithms used to programme the systems can be modified as scientific understanding of the brain evolves, and also be used to rapidly respond to physiological fluctuations within the body. But to realize this potential, we first need a better understanding of how the brain functions and responds to bioelectronic interventions.

Professor Denison’s programme will explore the future of adaptive, minimally-invasive bioelectronics by, firstly, developing the key scientific instrumentation required to better understand how the brain functions and adapts to a range of perturbations including ultrasound and transcranial electro-magnetic stimulation, and then in collaboration with clinician-partners, applying these tools and know-how to prototype concepts for future disease treatments, all with a goal of ultimate clinical translation.

For more information:

Study shows positive results for gestational diabetes smartphone app

A 21-month study into the safety and effectiveness of a smartphone application for women with gestational diabetes has shown positive results. The app was developed as part of a collaboration between the Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Drayson Health.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as new onset or recognition of glucose intolerance in pregnancy which resolves following birth, is increasing in prevalence around the world, driven by demographic and lifestyle changes. Gestational diabetes is a serious condition which can cause complications during pregnancy.

The GDm-Health app is a digital pharmaceutical intervention to improve gestational diabetes management. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving 203 patients showed significantly higher patient satisfaction with care, significantly better adherence to blood glucose monitoring, a significant reduction in caesarean sections, and a reduction in pre-term births.

Gestational diabetes smartphone appThe most common method of managing diabetes in pregnancy is finger-prick blood glucose testing, with women recording their blood glucose results in paper diaries around six times a day. These are then reviewed regularly by doctors and midwives in clinic. It is a time-consuming process, open to the risk of transcription errors.

GDm-Health is a direct patient-to-clinician blood glucose monitoring management system that allows clinicians to review patient-annotated blood glucose results in real time. It is based on a smartphone app that enables women to connect a blood glucose meter to their smartphone using Bluetooth or NFC (near field communication) and then automatically collect blood glucose measurements. 

These measurements, along with any text-based commentary the woman wishes to record, are transmitted directly to the clinical team where they may be reviewed via a web-based software application. 

As a result, clinicians get more time to focus on the woman's care needs rather than collecting and recording data, and have the ability to prioritise care to women most at need. 

Professor Lionel TarassenkoThe RCT was made possible by funding and scientific input from the NIHR Oxford Biomedial Research Centre, whose Technology and Digital Health Theme is led by Head of Department Professor Lionel Tarassenko. 

He commented: "This trial is another example of how self-management by patients using digital health tools can be secure, gives them greater control of their condition and reduces the number of times they have to visit a clinic".

"It improves communication between patient and clinical staff, reduces the amount of time spent by nurses and midwives on administrative tasks and allows for accurate auditing of data about care and outcomes."

Dr Lucy Mackillop, Consultant Obstetric Physician at OUH, is the clinical lead for the development of GDm-Health and led the RCT.

She says: "GDm-Health was developed in partnership with patients, clinicians and engineers. This trial was conducted in real world conditions within the NHS and demonstrates the potential utility of GDm-Health to improve care and outcomes for women with gestational diabetes and their babies." 

The RCT concluded: 'Further studies are required to explore whether digital health solutions can promote desired self-management lifestyle behaviours and dietetic adherence, and influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. Digital blood glucose monitoring may provide a scalable, practical method to address the growing burden of GDM around the world'.

Lord Drayson, Chairman and CEO of Drayson Health, added: "Our focus now shifts to making GDm-Health widely available across the UK and internationally, helping to improve maternal and neo-natal outcomes despite the rising prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy".

The results were presented, and made available Open Access, in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (NCT01916694).

Article courtesy of Drayson Health

Oxford Robotics Institute trials take place in Iceland

The Oxford Robotics Institute (ORI) recently conducted trials in Iceland as part of research into mobile robotics (aka driverless cars). ORI is a research institute within the Department of Engineering Science which researches all aspects of land-based mobile autonomy.

ORI partnered with Arctic Trucks, an Icelandic company that specialises in the re-engineering and conversion of four-wheel drive vehicles for extreme conditions. Once the ORI team had mounted radar, vision and Lidar sensors on the roof of a bespoke Toyota Hilux, Arctic Trucks drove it in a variety of terrain that epitomises the “off-road domain” - glaciers, giant rivers, and volcanoes - to gather datasets in challenging environmental conditions (see video below).  Of particular interest is the role of a new generation of sensors from NavTech Radar ltd. These units are designed to be immune to the effects of snow, rain, lighting etc which have impeded conventional computer vision and Lidar.

Professor Newman, director of ORI, says, “The ORI must do awkward and hard things, taking robots and vehicles to tricky places, doing tricky things. There is much to be done in having machines understand their surroundings in remarkable weather and harsh terrain with the next generation of machine vision and perception sensors. Working with Arctic Trucks is a great opportunity to pair and challenge our technology with a company which specialises in some really remarkable off-road machines.”

ORI Iceland



Sune Tamm, project developer of AT said ‘’Arctic Trucks is delighted to partner with the Oxford Robotics Institute (ORI). Oxford Robotics Institute is pushing the boundaries of autonomous drive technology in challenging conditions on one of our re-engineered Toyota Hilux AT 38 vehicles. Icelandic driving conditions can be among the most harsh in the world. Arctic Trucks is excited to share our experience and we see the potential benefit of the autonomous drive technology being tested by ORI.  We´re passionate about pushing boundaries of science, technology, and engineering and we use our trucks as a platform for mobile science projects in both polar regions - but we still find that some of the toughest conditions are here in Iceland´s ´backyard´ where we will be working with ORI.’’


Researchers call for volunteers to refine mosquito-detecting app

Researchers at Engineering Science, Zoology and Kew Gardens have developed a way of alerting people to the presence of mosquitoes with an app that detects their distinctive buzz.

The project team is now calling for volunteers to contribute to the next stage of the research through the Humbug Zooniverse project, officially launching today (4th April).

Mosquito-transmitted diseases are responsible for an estimated one million deaths each year, of which the vast majority are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Although global malaria cases have declined since 2010, they are now on the increase again.

The HumBug app (pictured below) runs on a cheap mobile phone, analysing sounds in the environment and issuing a warning when mosquitoes are nearby. To develop the early warning system, the project team converted recordings of mosquito sounds into frequency features and trained an algorithm to learn the signature pattern created by mosquitoes in flight.Humbug app interface

The project, led by Professor Stephen Roberts (Department of Engineering Science) and Professor Kathy Willis (Department of Zoology and Director of Science at Royal Botanic Gardens Kew), has already shown that the app could detect the presence of mosquitoes from about 10cm away, depending on background noise. The Humbug Project is funded by a Google Impact Challenge award and the ORCHID project.

The next phase of development is to improve the analysis so that it can differentiate between malaria-carrying species of mosquitoes from their more harmless relatives – only around 70 of the 3500 mosquito species are responsible for spreading malaria. The app should be able to learn the tell-tale audio signatures produced by different species based on variations in sound caused by wing size and shape.

During this next phase researchers need to process hundreds of hours of recordings in the wild and in labs. They are calling on members of the public to help with this task by analysing short audio clips for mosquito sounds. Those wanting to take part through Zooniverse can first train themselves by listening to examples of mosquito whines.

Hopefully this will save lives,” said Yunpeng Li, one of the research assistants working on the project. “If we can identify the species, we can tell people in areas where there is malaria that these mosquitoes are around and that they need to take care, to use bed nets and so on.”

The app has further development potential beyond warning people of nearby mosquitoes, say the team. Traditional mosquito surveys are expensive and time consuming and they put scientists in the field at risk of catching diseases. The new app could enable researchers to build up real-time maps of mosquito populations, and scientists in the field could identify mosquitoes more safely and easily.



The team

The principal investigators of the HumBug project are Professor Stephen Roberts (Oxford) and Professor Kathy Willis (Kew and Oxford) and research scientists include Dr. Marianne Sinka (Oxford), Dr. Davide Zilli (Oxford & Mind Foundry Ltd.), Dr. Samuel Pironon (Kew) and Dr. Yunpeng Li (Oxford). DPhil students working on HumBug include Ivan Kiskin (Oxford) and Oliver Bent (Oxford).  Oxford Intern Henry Chan is also working on the latest version of the mosquito app. For more information see

Dr Brian Sheil awarded Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship

Dr Brian Sheil, Departmental Lecturer in Geotechnical Engineering, has been awarded a Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship which will allow him to devote more time to his project for his project 'Intelligent Real-time Monitoring to Inform Underground Construction Processes'.
Dr Brian Sheil awarded Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship

Dr Brian Sheil

The Royal Academy of Engineering announced support for seven new engineering research fellowships, with each awardee receiving five years’ worth of funding to advance their academic research.

The Research Fellowships, which are highly competitive, are designed to advance excellence in engineering by enabling outstanding early-career academics to concentrate on basic research in any field of engineering. Covering a variety of engineering disciplines, the proposed research topics include deep learning for robotics, technologies to enable the conversion of waste into biofuels and new 3D imaging techniques for tissue engineering.

The funding allows researchers to devote more time to develop a track record in their discipline. Research Fellows also receive mentoring from an experienced Academy Fellow, providing valuable advice and industry links that will enable them to establish themselves as future leaders in their fields.

Sheil Caisson

Dr Sheil’s project will develop intelligent, automated methods for instrumenting, measuring and monitoring structural interaction with soil during underground construction operations. The monitored data will be used to provide real-time feedback to site engineers and to develop new design methods for underground construction processes.

A key aspect of this work will be the development of novel instruments employing fibre-bragg-grating sensors to measure soil-structure normal and frictional contact stresses in the field. These monitoring systems will be deployed on upcoming construction projects alongside industry partners.


Sheil Construction











Associate Professor Ton van den Bremer of the Department's Civil Engineering Group also received a Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship in July 2017 for his project  'Cleaning the ocean: understanding transport of plastic pollution by waves'. The project started in September 2017, the first 4 months at the University of Edinburgh, continuing at Oxford from the beginning of January 2018. He says, "Every day, the UK witnesses the harmful effects of plastic pollution on its coastlines, with a large share of fish in the English Channel reported to be contaminated with microplastic particles and the threat to seabirds reported as very serious. The Fellowship aims to determine the fundamental mechanisms of transport and dispersion of plastic pollution in realistic, stochastic seas. Together with currents and wind, waves determine the global pathways along which plastic pollution is transported. The intended impact will be to improve understanding of these pathsways, to ultimately aid and inform clean-up and mitigation".

Department awards University of Oxford Engineering Innovator Prize at ‘Big Bang’ competition

Senior Research Associate Dr Priyanka Dhopade and Departmental Lecturer Dr Brian Sheil presented the University of Oxford Engineering Innovator Prize to student Manisha Waterston at The Big Bang UK Young Scientists & Engineers Competition last week.

The Big Bang Competition is an annual contest designed to recognise and reward young people's achievements in all areas of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM), as well as helping them build skills and confidence in project-based work.

Senior Researcher at the Department’s Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, Dr Dhopade, says, “I was blown away by the quality and creativity of the projects on display at the Big Bang Science Fair. Manisha’s project “Music for the Eyes” was an excellent example of this, using a combination of maths, physics, programming and acoustics. She has a bright STEM career ahead of her.”

The University of Oxford Engineering Innovator Prize is awarded to an innovative project that incorporates more than one type of engineering. Notre Dame High School Glasgow student Manisha’s project Music for the Eyes involves the use of computer-generated tones from sinusoidal waves to create recognisable shapes and patterns on an oscilloscope. She was chosen from over 500 finalists from across the country after pitching her project to the competition judges.

Gabrielle Bouchard, Access and Outreach Officer at the Department of Engineering Science said, “All of the judges from Oxford’s Department of Engineering Science were incredibly impressed with the innovation and teamwork we saw at The Big Bang Competition”. The Department’s involvement in the competition is one of the many activities engaged in every year to interest young people in engineering and STEM.

Manisha has also been invited to attend the Department’s annual Lubbock Lecture on May 14, 2018. This year the keynote will be given by Professor Timothy Leighton FREng FRS, Professor of Ultrasonics and Underwater Acoustics within Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton.

For more information and to enter next year’s Competition visit

Manisha Waterston wins Department of Engineering Big Bang prize

Image shows Dr Brian Sheil, Dr Priyanka Dhopade and BBC Science Presenter Greg Foot with Manisha at the Big Bang

DPhil graduate offered prestigious Clifford G. Shull Fellowship

Oxford scientist the youngest person ever to be offered prestigious Clifford G. Shull Fellowship in the US

EPSRC Doctoral Prize Fellow and Engineering Science DPhil graduate Matthew R. Ryder (Balliol College) was recently offered the prestigious Clifford G. Shull Fellowship at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the United States. ORNL is the largest US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, a world-leading neutron science and nuclear energy research facility, and home to some of the world's top supercomputers.

Despite his young age, Matthew has already authored 18 publications and been awarded numerous prizes and accolades, including being named “one of the most promising scientists in the UKlast year. Following his DPhil degree in the Department’s Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering Group, he was awarded a highly sought-after EPSRC Doctoral Prize Fellowship to advance his research ideas involving the dielectric properties of next-generation framework materials. Matthew spent most of the past six months working in Northern Italy collaborating with scientists based at the University of Turin.

The head recruiter for Neutron Sciences at ORNL, Steve Cherry, says: “Dr Ryder may be the youngest Shull Fellow ever, but his research and publication record stands very well on its own, and he exhibits passion, confidence and coherence in his presentation style that makes him stand out as having very high potential for leadership in the growing field of Neutron Science”.

Matthew is the youngest person ever to be offered the Fellowship, which is only awarded to outstanding new scientists to allow them to continue their path to excellence. The Fellowship is named after neutron scientist Professor Clifford G. Shull, who was awarded the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work in neutron scattering, a technique that reveals where atoms are and how they behave within a material.

Fellow Scottish Chemist and recent Nobel Prize Winner (2016) Sir Fraser Stoddart says: “Matthew is a rising star in the world of science, he has exceptional ability and shows great promise for the future. During a visit to my research group at Northwestern University last September he left us in awe of his accomplishments and convinced me that here is a young scientist where it can be said with some confidence that the world is his oyster”.

The Clifford G. Shull Fellowship will allow Matthew to further his independent research career and establish valuable collaborations with other leading scientists working in his field.

Matthew says of the Fellowship: “It is the ideal position for me to pursue my own independent research. The Fellowship will provide me with access to some of the best neutron scattering and diffraction instruments and supercomputers in the world. I intend to initially focus on the stability of next-generation framework materials upon external stimuli such as the thermal and high-pressure response properties. However, with the world-leading facilities available and a team of brilliant scientists to work with, the possibilities are limitless”.

In 2017 Matthew was presented with the British Zeolite Association (BZA) Founders’ Award, one of the most prestigious in the field, for ‘his novel work on the mechanical and electrical properties of metal-organic framework materials (MOFs) using quantum chemical calculations and neutron and synchrotron spectroscopic techniques’. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has described porous framework materials such as MOFs as ‘the most promising next-generation technology for carbon capture’, as well as having potential uses in other emerging applications such as cancer drug delivery and microelectronics.

To learn more about MOFs and their applications see the following review article: Nanoporous metal-organic framework materials for smart applications, published in the Journal of Materials Science and Technology

Department spinout company wins New Product Award for microscale benchtop technology

iotaSciences, a spinout company from the Department of Engineering Science, recently received a New Product Award at Society for Laboratory and Automation Screening conference SLAS2018, in recognition of their innovative and portable benchtop single-cell instrument, the isoCell.
Department spinout company wins New Product Award for microscale benchtop technology

A microGRID side view

iotaSciences is focussed on developing and delivering solutions to life scientists and the biomedical sector based on innovative fluid shaping technologies. The company was founded in 2016 to commercialise a fluid-shaping technology developed by engineers and scientists from the Department’s Oxford Thermofluids Institute and The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology.

iotaSciences have developed isoCell, which utilizes this proprietary fluid-shaping technology to create small-scale liquid chambers (microGRIDS) and deposits single cells into them. The system overcomes a main obstacle in assuring the monoclonality of cells by replacing solid walls with fluid ones and hence providing excellent optical clarity on any microscope, allowing researchers and labs to analyse single cells in a very cost-effective way.

The isoCell system should have a range of academic and medical applications, including accelerating the research and discovery of next-generation therapeutics, genome editing, production of monoclonal antibodies and protein therapeutics, and the establishment of novel cellular disease models.

Joey Riepsaame, Head of Genome Engineering, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, explains how the new technology benefits his research: “we need to generate many different gene edited clonal (stem) cell lines. However, isolating and expanding single cells is a very long and labour intensive process that can take up significant resources. IotaSciences’ isoCell allows us to bypass these issues and facilitates the generation of clonal (stem) cell lines with minimal hands-on time while considerably reducing the amount of consumables.”

Peptide-protein bio-ink technique has capacity to mimic naturally-occurring cells and tissues

Research carried out by the Department of Engineering Science, Queen Mary University of London and Nanyang Technological University (Singapore), published recently in Advanced Functional Materials, aims to integrate the benefits of self-assembly with nanoscale precision - building structures by assembling molecules like Lego pieces - with novel bio-ink printing techniques.

This process opens up possibilities for building complex biological structures with cells embedded in an ink which recreates their native environment, such as body tissue, and therefore recreating biological scenarios or tissues with molecular control.

The approach uses a self-assembling ink that can chemically and structurally resemble the cells’ natural surrounding environment. This capability has implications for tissue engineering, drug screening methods, and regenerative medicine as it introduces the potential to recreate biological scenarios or tissues with molecular control.

The technique can be used to fabricate complex macroscopic structures, using cells and biomolecules normally found in natural tissues, so that they resemble naturally occurring structures. The applications of a technique which can create complex patterns that mimic naturally occurring forms are varied.

Biological constructs resembling specific cell environments and tissues can be designed and created for use in different fields such as tissue engineering, to test drugs in a more efficient manner, and regenerative medicine. Complex biological scenarios (such as niches where cancer grows and where the immune cells interact with other cells) can be constructed and used to study a variety of diseases.

Previous investigations into the use of self-assembling materials as inks for bioprinting have focused on self-assembling peptides that can gel over dry surfaces, maintaining their shape and ability to encapsulate cells.

This new study presents a number of advantages over previous techniques, including being able to incorporate multiple macromolecules, recreating the way these molecules are presented in in vivo. Furthermore, the study opens new opportunities in biofabrication by enabling for the first time the possibility to control biomolecular and physical elements at the molecular, nano and microscale.


Hydrodynamically Guided Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Peptide–Protein Bioinks, Advanced Functional Materials, February 2018
Clara L. Hedegaard, Estelle C. Collin, Carlos Redondo-Gómez, Luong T. H. Nguyen, Kee Woei Ng, Alfonso A. Castrejón-Pita, J. Rafael Castrejón-Pita, and Alvaro Mata

This work was supported by the ERC Starting Grant (STROFUNSCAFF), the FP7-PEOPLE-2013-CIG Biomorph, the Royal Society, and the European Space Agency (Drop My Thesis program, 2016).